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Index> Alliance Guide> Koplushians

The Template



The 16 Rules of Esperanto Grammar

There are 28 letters in the alphabet: A, B, C (like 'ts' in its), C (like 'ch' in 'chip'), D, E, F, G (always hard like 'g' in 'gum'), G (always soft like 'g' ng 'gem'), H, H (like 'ch' in German 'Bach' or Scottish 'loch'), I, J (like 'y' in 'yoyo'), J (like 'j' in French 'jour' or 'z' in English 'azure'), K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, S (like 'sh' in 'show'), T, U, U (like 'w' in 'water'), V, Z. All the vowels are pronounced as in Spanish (or like English "fAther, hEy, machIne, mOre, lUnar").

On the Internet, the accented characters may also be represented as ch, gh, hh, jh, sh, u (no h with this last one); or as cx, gx, hx, jx, sx, ux. Both systems using 'h' and 'x' are commonly used.

The definite article is 'la'. This is equivalent to English 'the'. There is no indefinite article ('a'/'an').
domo = a house

la domo = the house


Nouns end in '-o'. For plurals, the '-j' ending is added. (Remember 'j' sounds like the English 'y'.) For accusatives, the '-n' ending is added. The accusative is a direct object of a verb.
Kato kaptas raton.
= A cat captures a rat.

Katoj kaptas ratojn.
= Cats capture rats.


Adjectives end in '-a'. For plurals, the '-j' ending is added. For accusatives, the '-n' ending is added.
La granda kato kaptas la malgrandajn ratojn.
= The big cat captures the small rats.

La grandaj katoj kaptas la malgrandan raton.
= The big cats capture the small rat.

The comparative adverb is 'pli' (English 'more', '-er') and the superlative adverb is 'plej' (English 'most', '-est'). The comparative conjunction is 'ol' (English 'than').

La kato estas pli granda ol la rato.
= The cat is bigger than the rat.

La baleno estas la plej granda animalo.
= The whale is the biggest animal.


The cardinal numbers are 'unu' (1), 'du' (2), 'tri' (3), 'kvar' (4), 'kvin' (5), 'ses' (6), 'sep' (7), 'ok' (8), 'nau' (9), 'dek' (10), 'cent' (100), 'mil' (1000). Cardinal numbers do not need the '-j' or '-n' ending. The ordinal numbers end in '-a'. The suffix '-obl-' is used for multiples, '-on-' for fractions, '-op-' for collectives. The preposition 'po' means 'at the rate of'.
tria = third

triobla = triple

triono = a third

triope = three at a time

po du dolaroj por kilogramo = two dollars per kilogram


The pronouns are 'mi' ('I'), 'vi' ('you'), 'li' ('he'), 'si' ('she'), 'gi' ('it'), 'si' ('oneself'), 'ni' ('we'), 'ili' ('they'), and 'oni' ('one'/'they'/'people'). The '-a' ending is used for possessives. For the accusative, the '-n' ending is added.
Li kreis gin. = He created it.

Li lavas sin. = He washes himself.

Lia patro amas sin. = His father loves her.

Oni diras, ke si estas bela. = People say that she is beautiful.


Verbs end in '-i' in the infinitive, '-as' in the present tense, '-is' in the past tense, '-os' in the future tense, '-us' in the conditional, and '-u' in the imperative.
Mi vidis, vidas, kaj vidos.
= I saw, see, and will see.

Mi povas vidi vin. = I can see you.

Helpu min! = Help me!

Se mi estus rica, mi acetus grandan domon.
= If I were rich, I would buy a big house.

Active participles end in '-ant' for the present, '-int' for the past, and '-ont' for the future. Passive participles end in '-at' for the present, '-it' for the past, and '-ot' for the future. The preposition 'de' is used with the passive.

La viro estas falanta. = The man is falling.

La viro estas falinta. = The man has fallen.

La viro estas falonta. = The man is about to fall.

La rato estis mangita de la kato. = The rat was eaten by the cat.

La rato estas mangota de la kato. = The rat is about to be eaten by the cat.


Adverbs end in '-e'.
rapide = quickly


Prepositions govern the nominative case of the noun, which ends in '-o' or '-oj'. (But see Rule 13.)
La domo de la knabo estas en la centro de la urbo.
= The house of the boy is in the center of the city.


All words are pronounced as they are spelled.

The accent of a multisyllabic word is on the second to the last syllable. If the '-o' is omitted, the accent naturally falls on the last syllable.
teleVIdo = television

teleVID' = television


New words can be formed by compounding.
dormo = sleep

cambro = room

dormocambro = bedroom


There is no double negative. If 'ne' ('not') is already used, there is no need for a second negative word.
Li neniam audas. = He never hears.

Li ne audas. = He does not hear.


To indicate motion towards, the word ends in '-n'.
Mi iras en la domon. = I am going into the house.

Mi iris supren. = I went above.


All prepositions have a definite meaning. There is an 'all-purpose', generic preposition 'je'. Alternatively, the accusative '-n' ending may be used.
Je la deka, li foriris. = At ten o'clock, he went away.

La dekan, li foriris. = At ten o'clock, he went away.


Words borrowed from other languages follow the Esperanto orthography.
komputero = computer (from English)

komputilo = computer
(komputi = to compute, ilo = tool)


The noun ending '-o' or the '-a' of 'la' can be dropped and replaced by an apostrophe.
la elefanto = the elephant

l'elefant' = the elephant



LANGUAGE

The koplushian language is very regular with very few idioms.. It has regular affixes and a rigid word order which mirrors the stratified koplushian culture. I present here a 'taste' of the language in the form of a small English/Koplushian/Esperanto phrase sheet. If you're ever taken aboard a Koplushian spacecraft, (not likely,) you'll be all set to learn their entire language.

 

English Koplushian Esperanto
Hi, I'm from Earth. M egres, ai prastbai Karplany Saluton, Mi estas Terano.
Take me to your leader. kahf hui kuh haim kahtor Konduku min al via estro.
Glad to meet you. loig heh hai agrabla renkontigxo
How are you? luihah noep hai? Kiel vi fartas?
Please... roenar Bonvolu
How do you say this/that? luihah hais horp kih/gah? Kiel oni diras (cxi) tion?
What do you call this/that? hais preep kih/gah? Kiel oni nomas (cxi) tion?
Do you speak koplushian? hais horp breehah'horg? Cxu vi parolas koplusxalingve?
I don't speak koplushian hui foi horp breehah'horg. Mi ne parolas koplusxalingve?
Don't you speak Koplushian? hais horp kahpue'horg Cxu vi ne parolas Koplusxalingve?
Do you speak Esperanto? hais horp h'es'peh'rahn'toe? Cxu vi parolas Esperante?
Do you understand? hais horsoep? Cxu vi komprenas?
I don't understand. hui foi horsoep. Mi ne komprenas
Speak more slowly. horf bagar lug. Parolu pli malrapide.
Where is? Where are? loes noep? Kiel estas?
Give to me... bihf hui Donu al mi
...Water jree Akvo
...Human food (food for humans) kahpue'hah teh Nutrajxo por homoj
Thank you. roenar (yes it's the same word.) Danke
You're welcome (don't mention it) semih Ne dankinde
Come in. fai'ruif Envenu.
Fine weather. sah noesep. Bone vetero.
Bad weather. brineh noesep. Malbona vetero.
Yes. nai. Jes.
No. foi. Ne.
Please, take me home. roenar, kahf hui kuh huim siloe. Bonvolu, veturigu min hejmen.
Take me with you. nuh hui rai hai. Portu min kun vi
May God help me percieve rightly (Observer's prayer) Poetor lenaif hai. Dio helpu min percepti gxuste..


 

 

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